Dr. Paul Leslie

Dr. Paul Leslie

Monday, 17 January 2022 22:51

Appreciative Inquiry in Education

Appreciative Inquiry 

Appreciative inquiry (AI) is a process through which we can approach issues and situations with positive intentions that look forward to solutions and a positive future. In this manner, we can hope to meet everyone's expectations for their futures.

Examine this image that describes the AI "4D" model:

appreciative inquiry 768x527

https://www.epiconsulting.org/appreciative-inquiry/

Here is al alternative way to look at the AI model:

appreciate

You should also have a look at this article on the general principles of AI: http://www.gervasebushe.ca/the_AI_model.pdf

Consider the following quote from Stavros (2014).


AI Discussion

"As in a typical AI 4-D cycle, the kids did a discovery interview in pairs with four questions. Then, they join another team in the dream phase. They had to draw and color on paper a picture of what first grade looks like and explain it to the group. In the design phase, the kids had colorful note cards, and each parent wrote three things the kindergarteners would do to get ready to go to first grade. Then, the parents asked the kids in their groups, what are three things that the first grade teacher could do to get ready for the new first graders. During the design phase, the first graders gave advice to the kindergartners and the parents. During the group work, the classroom was very loud and filled with giggles and lots of shout outs. You could sense the kids squealing in delight with the new first grade friends and now visions and hopes for the new school year were designed. In the destiny phase, the first graders took their kindergarten buddies on a tour of the first grade classroom and a special treat awaited all the kids." (p. 191).

Peer Observation

Read the article on AI and peer observations: Peer reviews of teaching as appreciative inquiry: learning from 'the best' of or colleagues. Fileborn, B., Wood, M., Loughnan, C. (2020)

In the article, they discuss the general guidelines they established to ensure that the process worked for everyone.

  • Be respectful of the peer observation and the designed process
  • Honor the time for peer observations and the commitments you make to fellow teachers
  • Focus peer observation conversations on what is working in the teacher’s classroom
  • Be supportive and positive about your fellow teachers

 Class Activity

For this process, we will try to design some questions that might be useful for you to guide your appreciative observation. Here are some sample questions from the article.

  • What evidence of student engagement is there during this lesson? What strategies, processes, or statements are facilitating this engagement?
  • What teaching techniques or strategies are you observing being used well and effectively to open and/or close the lesson?
  • What evidence of student learning are you observing in this class? What strategies, processes, or statements seem to best facilitate this learning?
  • What teaching techniques or strategies are you observing being used well and effectively during the lesson?
  • What, if any, evidence is there of the effective use of Individualized Learning Plans, Interdisciplinary Unit Development, Project-Based Learning, or Community Involvement? If present, what is it that is making this effective?
  • What are the “smallest things” you see the teacher doing that seem to have a disproportional positive effect on an individual student or the class?
  • What positive moments are you observing that might become “the one moment” that you best remember from this lesson? Why? 

Reference

Fileborn, B., Wood, M., Loughnan, C. (2020). Peer reviews of teaching as appreciative inquiry: learning from 'the best' of or colleagues.  Higher Education.

Bushe, G. (2013) The Appreciative Inquiry Model. In E.H. Kessler, (ed.) Encyclopedia of Management Theory, Sage Publications, 2013.

Moehle, M. (2014). Appreciative peer teacher observation. In D. Dole, M. Moehle, & L. Godwin (Eds.), Exceeding Expectations (pp. 224-235).

Stavros, J. (2014). An appreciative inquiry with kindergarten and first-grade students. In D. Dole, M. Moehle, & L. Godwin (Eds.), Exceeding Expectations (pp. 224-235).

Tuesday, 14 December 2021 02:02

Discussion forums - How to discuss!

Hello Discussants,

Discussion forums can provide great opportunities, not only for grading but for the social construction of knowledge. As I have been reading about the notion of hybrid learning and now hyflex or hyperflex learning, let me share some ideas on how to make the most of your efforts in these discussion forums.

In a series of interviews on the experience of using discussion boards in these courses, I found the following comments:

"The richest learning for me, has come out of those discussion boards and looking at other people's interpretations of things and talking to people about, or reading their experiences with varying things. And I've realized now that a lot of what I enjoy, a lot of my learning comes from is actually, from those discussion boards."

Many of the people I have interviewed found themselves actually quite surprised by the value and experiences they found in the discussion forums. For example, the following person described how the forum gave them the chance to really review the asynchronous discussion and think clearly about their own perspective on that particular issue before responding. The additional time offered by the asynchronous format allows for deeper reflection on the topic and stronger responses and understanding.

So, some of them I read two or three times, then I thought did I read this right? I didn’t respond right away, so I would read it first, step away and then come back. Sometimes I reread the notes before I responded because I thought, "I wanna get this right before my response to the person".

In other cases, people found that they were equally challenged by and benefited from providing answers to their classmates. They found that by thinking through the questions posed to them, they were able to clarify for themselves their own thoughts on the particular issue and then provide a meaningful response to their classmates.

"I think the big thing that helped me was reading other people's posts and trying to answer the questions that they had. So when I read someone else's, I actually connected and I had an answer for them. It made me feel very excited, because I was like, "Look, I'm helping this individual! I've experienced this and I've tried something and hey, here's what my experience has been."

  One way to ensure that people take time to read your post so that you receive feedback on it and can initiate a conversation, is to take the time to format your post.

I think being aware of what it looks like when someone opens it, it's like when I hand an assignment to students that's a full page of just writing, I know that they're gonna look at it and go, "Yeah, no". I feel similarly with the discussion posts. I know there's a couple of times where I would open one and it was just a wall of text and I was like, "I don't know if I'm gonna read this one", and it wasn't due from merit.

Consider the following outline for creating your post and engaging in the forum.

discussion forum post bHow to participate in a discussion forum.

To benefit from the discussion board environment and the chance for the social construction of knowledge, participants must both openly share their thoughts, and invite responses from others. Inviting responses includes paying attention to the responses.

As I scanned many of the discussion forum posts generated in my courses over the past few years, I have noticed an important correlation between the number of comments a participant posts on others' posts, and the number of responses they receive to their own post. There are clear patterns that emerge just from the pattern of responses in the forum, without even opening up the posts. As a person comments on others' posts, those others then come to the initial respondent and comment on his or her post. In turn, this leads to greater feedback, interaction and transformation of that participant's knowledge resulting in excellent final projects.

I share a gentle reminder that you will will benefit much more from shorter, more frequent visits to the forums.

Finally, I also invite you to consider the community of inquiry as a model for online interactions.

coi new

Watch this video I have created and narrated on the Community of Inquiry

Wednesday, 10 November 2021 00:12

Probation Goals

This page documents the progress of my probation goals. The embedded page below documents the goals while the individual folder below contain evidence and narrative regarding the progress towards each of my goals.

For further information about individual goals, please click on any of the folders below:

 

 

Saturday, 25 September 2021 05:42

Seeking Cwelelep

In some recent research, I wrote about the notion of Cwelelep which is an indigenous principle concerned with learning. Please see the following article:

Sanford, K., et al. (2012). "Indigenous Principles Decolonizing Teacher Education: What We Have Learned." In Education 18(2).

In the article, they comment that Cwelelep is (Sanford, et al, 2012, Lil’wat Principles):

"recognizing the need to sometimes be in a place of dissonance and uncertainty, so as to be open to new learning."

 I am very interested in seeking answers to how we can instill and inspire in our students the ability to recognize their need to seek cwelelep. In my current work as a faculty member using distance education tools to motivate and inspire my students, I am pursuing a community of inquiry approach to help inspire my students to feel free to challenge each other to be in a place of uncertainty. 

Hello - when I grade the first forum in this course, I often receive several emails. The following is a consolidated response to students:


First, I will just clarify that I use the grades to get students’ attention and to ‘encourage’ them to pay a just a bit more attention and to participate a bit more. Considering the several emails I have received this morning from you and others, it worked!

This can be considered an example of assessment for learning as opposed to assessment of learning. I consider this to be formative assessment and feedback as I am giving everyone several comments to explain my rationale behind the grade. The grade itself is merely a tool to get your attention.

afl cambridge

Cambridge Assessment for Learning

For more significant grading efforts, I am often very concerned to give advice and to offer to review work before it is submitted, and will return submitted work with an extended deadline if I feel that the student has misunderstood the expectations of the assignment.

In every case, I generally hope to see comments on several other students work – e.g., 4 or 5 or more. I find that when you comment on more of your peers’ work, they will then reciprocate and want to come and read your work.

I have also found that the best value for students is in responding to questions on their own post. This is why it is imperative to attract more people to your own post by commenting on their posts. If you get answers to your questions, that is great. However, I also encourage students to ask questions that will challenge the other students rather than questions that you actually want an answer to. You will learn more by focusing your attention on reviewing other people’s perspectives on your work (answering their questions) rather than your perspective on their work (reading their answers).

Tuesday, 06 July 2021 07:57

Taos Forum Call: Now I see a Person

Here are the details of another forum call I hosted on June 25th:

REMINDER!!

Dear Taos Associates,

You are invited to a Forum Call with Susan Swim and her colleagues from Now I See a Person.

Revisiting Process Ethics: Participating and Co-Creating Intimacy in Client-Therapist Relationships

June 25, at 12:00 - 1:30 PM US Eastern time

-------------------------

Paul Leslie will host this Forum Call with Dr. Susan Swim and her colleagues from Now I See a Person. You may also invite a guest to join you for this Forum Call, perhaps a colleague or student.

From Susan:

In 2001, I asked Ken, Harlene, Tom, Sally, Dan, Faith and Giselle to accompany me in writing on Process Ethics (Journal of Systemic Therapies 2001).

Now I See A Person Institute was created on these premises of “Ethically Generated Relationships”. Every conversation whether at the ranch or via zoom, due to the pandemic, celebrates honesty, genuine caring, seeing a person rather than a diagnosis, trust, humility, and humanness. Our “clients” see us as people as we do them. People come to be with us, a team of therapists, hopeless and suffering and we meet them in a space of genuine caring, pure listening, attempting to see, hear, understand, and be always client led.

In our previous forum calls we have sought to present and highlight these client voices in our evidence-based research. In this call we wish to share our voices, in the collective “we” which leads to what we now call "Extraordinarily Normal Lives".

Susan has also shared a number of references as pre-reading. Please take this opportunity to read through some of these in anticipation of the call.

References:

  1. Journal of Systemic Therapies. Special Edition on Process Ethics Vol 20, No. 4 2001. (https://guilfordjournals.com/toc/jsyt/20/4 )
  2. Mad In America. Now I See A Person: A New Model for Breaking Free of Mental Health Labels.  https://www.madinamerica.com/2021/01/now-i-see-person-new-model-breaking-free-mental-health-labels/
  3. Swim, S. (2020). "Colleen’s Healing Journey." Metalogos Systemic Therapy Journal(38). (https://www.metalogos-systemic-therapy-journal.eu/en/current%20issue)
  4. Swim, S., et al. (2020). "Extraordinarily Normal: A Journey of Breaking Free from the Limits of Labels." Metalogos Systemic Therapy Journal(38). (https://www.metalogos-systemic-therapy-journal.eu/en/current%20issue )

-------------------------

After registering, you will receive a confirmation email containing information about joining the meeting. Please keep that email as it contains your unique link to join the call. 

-------------------------

www.taosinstitute.net

Paul Leslie, PhD

www.paulleslie.net

Apple Teacher
Associate of the Taos Institute (https://www.taosinstitute.net/paul-leslie)

Wednesday, 23 June 2021 21:47

PME 832 - Course Outline - Summer 2021

Please download the outline and syllabus linked below. You will also find this outline in the D2L course.

Also, please take the time to watch this video introduction to the course.

Tuesday, 22 June 2021 06:27

PME 832 -Summer 2021 - How to discuss!

Hello Students,

This course, and most Queens PME course, rely heavily on discussion forums, not only for grading but for the social construction of knowledge. So, let me share some ideas on how to make the most of your efforts in these discussion forums.

In a series of interviews on the experience of using discussion boards in these courses, some of your classmates and peers have made the following comments:

"The richest learning for me, has come out of those discussion boards and looking at other people's interpretations of things and talking to people about, or reading their experiences with varying things. And I've realized now that a lot of what I enjoy, a lot of my learning comes from is actually, from those discussion boards."

Many of the people I have interviewed found themselves actually quite surprised by the value and experiences they found in the discussion forums. For example, the following person described how the forum gave them the chance to really review the asynchronous discussion and think clearly about their own perspective on that particular issue before responding. The additional time offered by the asynchronous format allows for deeper reflection on the topic and stronger responses and understanding.

So, some of them I read two or three times, then I thought did I read this right? I didn’t respond right away, so I would read it first, step away and then come back. Sometimes I reread the notes before I responded because I thought, "I wanna get this right before my response to the person".

In other cases, people found that they were equally challenged by and benefited from providing answers to their classmates. They found that by thinking through the questions posed to them, they were able to clarify for themselves their own thoughts on the particular issue and then provide a meaningful response to their classmates.

"I think the big thing that helped me was reading other people's posts and trying to answer the questions that they had. So when I read someone else's, I actually connected and I had an answer for them. It made me feel very excited, because I was like, "Look, I'm helping this individual! I've experienced this and I've tried something and hey, here's what my experience has been."

  One way to ensure that people take time to read your post so that you receive feedback on it and can initiate a conversation, is to take the time to format your post.

I think being aware of what it looks like when someone opens it, it's like when I hand an assignment to students that's a full page of just writing, I know that they're gonna look at it and go, "Yeah, no". I feel similarly with the discussion posts. I know there's a couple of times where I would open one and it was just a wall of text and I was like, "I don't know if I'm gonna read this one", and it wasn't due from merit.

Consider the following outline for creating your post and engaging in the forum.

discussion forum post bHow to participate in a discussion forum.

To benefit from the discussion board environment and the chance for the social construction of knowledge, participants must both openly share their thoughts, and invite responses from others. Inviting responses includes paying attention to the responses.

As I have scanned the discussion forum posts over the past few years, I have noticed an important correlation between the number of comments a participant posts on others' posts, and the number of responses they receive to their own post. There are clear patterns that emerge just from the pattern of responses in the forum, without even opening up the posts. As a person comments on others' posts, those others then come to the initial respondent and comment on his or her post. In turn, this leads to greater feedback, interaction and transformation of that participant's knowledge resulting in excellent final projects.

I share a gentle reminder that you will will benefit much more from shorter, more frequent visits to the forums.

Finally, I also invite you to consider the community of inquiry as a model for online interactions.

coi new

Watch this video I have created and narrated on the Community of Inquiry

Our current cohort of students for Collaborative Inquiry - 801 - Spring 2021 - is a bit smaller at only 12 students. This makes the use of the discussion forums even more important for students to gain the full benefits of a distance format course.

During the Module 1 assignments, I noted that there was not as much interaction as I wanted to see and so 'encouraged' (deducted points from) many of the students to participate beyond the minimal requirements of the assignment. 

See the results in the Module 2 assignment - Technology Montage:

discussion forum replies sp21 801

This encouragement may not have contributed to the increase, but then again ... 

Thursday, 27 May 2021 15:19

Knowledge Forum Feedback

Hello - Hello - Here is a set of feedback from 2019 that I shared with students about their knowledge forum activities. These may be helpful to you.

You have put in a considerable effort to the Knowledge forum. I want to share with you the general feedback I gave to students so that you can see my focus on your work.

Knowledge Forum Rubric – PME 801

 

Capstone

4

Milestones

3                 2

Benchmark

1

Define Problem

Demonstrates the ability to construct a clear and insightful problem statement with evidence of all relevant contextual factors.

Demonstrates the ability to construct a problem statement with evidence of most relevant contextual factors, and problem statement is adequately detailed.

Begins to demonstrate the ability to construct a problem statement with evidence of most relevant contextual factors, but problem statement is superficial.

Demonstrates a limited ability in identifying a problem statement or related contextual factors.

Identify Strategies

Identifies multiple approaches for solving the problem that apply within a specific context.

Identifies multiple approaches for solving the problem, only some of which apply within a specific context.

Identifies only a single approach for solving the problem that does apply within a specific context.

Identifies one or more approaches for solving the problem that do not apply within a specific context.

Propose Solutions/Hypotheses

Proposes one or more solutions/hypotheses that indicates a deep comprehension of the problem. Solution/hypotheses are sensitive to contextual factors as well as all of the following: ethical, logical, and cultural dimensions of the problem.

Proposes one or more solutions/hypotheses that indicates comprehension of the problem. Solutions/hypotheses are sensitive to contextual factors as well as the one of the following: ethical, logical, or cultural dimensions of the problem.

Proposes one solution/hypothesis that is “off the shelf” rather than individually designed to address the specific contextual factors of the problem.

Proposes a solution/hypothesis that is difficult to evaluate because it is vague or only indirectly addresses the problem statement.

Embracing Contradictions

Integrates alternate, divergent, or contradictory perspectives or ideas fully.

Incorporates alternate, divergent, or contradictory perspectives or ideas in an exploratory way.

Includes (recognizes the value of) alternate, divergent, or contradictory perspectives or ideas in a small way.

Acknowledges (mentions in passing) alternate, divergent, or contradictory perspectives or ideas.

Total

Gradebook Score:         /15

The rubric score is an approximate average out of 4. The gradebook score is the rubric score + 10, and a discretionary extra point. A score below 70, or 10/15, is a failing grade, is at the discretion of the instructor, and outside of the scope of the rubric.

Source: Association of American Colleges and Universities: https://www.aacu.org/value-rubrics

           

 

I can only find 3 entries from you in the Knowledge forum. This was a three-week long activity in which there was quite an abundance of conversation (42 pages and 22,000 + words). I worry that you are not benefiting from the conversation. I see that you are in a group and that you did contribute some comments. I hope you can contribute to your group. I am also note from your feedback that you have been experiencing a personal issue and so Ia m happy to show support for your studies by providing the above grade. If you feel I have misrepresented your input, please let me know. I am always happy to discuss and reconsider grades.


I am able to see a couple of focus areas. You discuss students and collaborative projects, but I also see a greater focus on collaboration between faculty. Would you say this is of greater interest to you? Is it something that you have greater control over? I see an overall focus on process which is evident in the group question you will pursue. This is all very useful. Good luck.


your initial question sparked a great range of discussion and I was interested to note it survived the forum intact and is now basically the group question. Well done. I can also see that you have provided a range of feedback and answers to people questions to you. Your name comes up in quite a few other entries where people are replying to you or referencing your comments. Nice work.


I really enjoyed reading your focus on the collaborative process for students and the questions how to ensure that students have choices to collaborate or not and then how to go about justifying their choices. These in themselves are examples of ill-structured problems: “Will I be more successful if I work alone or in a group?” Your question looks very interesting.


I see a very refined focus on collaborative techniques and the process of collaboration. I thought your question, “I also wonder how the roles and responsibilities within a collaborative learning environment change based on the age of the learners” was very interesting. I also see a tinge of how do we keep things relevant to our own lives and to our students’ lives? I wonder if there is room for inquiry just to see? I always remember taking apart the gear shifter on my new bicycle when I was about 10 years old. The whole thing exploded. My father was not impressed, but when I said I just wanted to see how it worked, he helped me put it back together.


I note that you did pose an interesting question with a bit of a follow up and that you created some great discussion. However, I did not see a lot of follow up from you to explore your question more fully or build on the comments of your classmates. The best aspect of this forum is that you have a chance to really explore your topic in an ill-structured manner before trying to impose more structure on your inquiry.


I see you have made a significant effort in the forum. Thanks! I think you are a k-6 teacher and so am intrigued by your choice of group question. I think that children and adults are ultimately driven by the same motivating factors. “Why are we doing this?”. Perhaps adults have a more complex reasoning, but not always! I look forward to reading your group project.


I thought your contributions to the knowledge forum were timely and interesting I would like to challenge you to think more broadly in your own experience. Your comments around the fundamental questions of ‘why’ are relevant but I wonder if you are still trying to structure things too much and not prepared to let students experience a truly ill-structured experience? You are also quite focused on institutional approval, which is important but you need to remember that, “It matters who the teacher is” (Kelchtermans, 2008).


 I understand that you are not a teacher and so your contributions are more so valuable. I thought your question, “What strategies can we teach students to focus more on collaborative learning rather than learning just for rewards (grades)?” was an excellent question for your group. I thought you were able to maintain a focus on the nature of problem solving and its usefulness to us as a general skill rather than just a way to get a good grade. I look forward to your group project. Well done!


I think your contributions to the forum were excellent. I can see that you tried to respond to questions and offered some excellent points to your classmates. I thought your question around data collection was a great focus and I am happy to see that your group will also focus on data collection. That is a good sign that you were able to defend your question. I hope you are able to get some great answers for yourself.


Thanks for your great contributions. I think you gave some very insightful comments around issues such as how do help students build a base knowledge around a topic (this sometimes gets lost in problem solving activities). I also loved your document on the 80/20 split – it was very interesting and a great model for others. This could be a great research topic.


I see that your two initial questions generated an amazing amount of dialogue. I hope you have read through all of that carefully. I would like to see that you have really investigated your classmates’ comments. I also see your final question around data collection in the classroom to inspire collaboration is very timely and relevant to this group. I do wonder how much thought you have shared with your classmates o this topic? Is this really a burning question for you? I can see the relevance of your initial question to your literature classroom. Is this final group question different than you had hoped? Is it still relevant to you?


 I see that you have participated in the forum quite prolifically and that you have been referenced and responded to by quite a number of your classmates. Well done! I like your focus on the issue of the value of any particular activity wand what do the stakeholders get out of it. This is an essential question and one that we must never lose sight of. I love the idea of learning for its own sake, but we need to question if formal education institutes are the place for that? At least sometimes it is, I hope, but generally people want to see results. How do we measure the joy of learning? Great effort!I read through all of your contributions I see some excellent questions and some discussion around the process of collaboration and how to ensure that students are getting the most out of it. I wonder if you have some answers for your classmates. Good luck with your group question!


I see that you have had a very rich discussion with a number of classmates I the knowledge forum,. You have posed at least three solid questions and maintained a focus on the ill-structured nature of questions. I always wonder how much damage our bias causes due to us misconstruing the nature of the problem or issue in front of us. How do we help our students to be aware of these two issues? I hope your final question looks at something like this. Great effort!


I think you did a great job to maintain your focus on the question of relevance: “What have you done for me lately?”. THi is an on-going question in every discipline and one that I spend a lot of time on with faculty development. I like the idea of knowledge for the sheer joy of learning, but that does not serve us well in formalized education. In the PME program here at Queens for example, the focus is n professional practice and that confines our inquiry. We are all very busy and so we want to get to the point. I wonder how much of this is because of the nature o the course and how much is more about serving some other need such as stakeholder data? Your final group question will be a great challenge. Well done!


I thought your entries to the forum were quite thoughtful. I did notice that you made fewer entries but that each one was rather significant. I wonder if this decreases your “interactivity” in the forum. I like to see people responding more regularly, even if with shorter posts. I am looking for you to really question each other and be questioned and show evidence that you are trying to consider others’ thoughts on your work. To do hat, you need to partake more regularly. Good luck with your question!


It seems that you have not contributed at all to the knowledge forum. Did you know how to access the forum? I will give you some credit as I can see that you have been logging in regularly. If you had any issues, please let me know and we can work something out.


I read through your contributions to the knowledge forum. You had a very clear focus and well-articulated arguments. I thought you responded well to your classmates and some of the points you raised were highly relevant. I think my only reservation indicated by the last criteria is your focus on cognitive bias. I see your own bias coming out in a few spots and wonder what you do to ameliorate your own biases, for example in relation to professional development? I agree with your points, but you need to have a clear argument for each session. They are not all the same.


Wow you outdid yourself in the forum. Your name pops up all over the document and I can see that you have made several dozen contributions. I loved your question as well: “How can we effectively cover the curriculum when engaged in inquiry led learning?”. As a curriculum ‘guy’, I think this is a key question. I see your final group question is a variation of this. Great work!


I read through your contributions in the forum and was duly impressed with your questions (“Do you think student-driven learning is automatically ill-structured?”) which generated lots of comments and your feedback around such issues as age appropriate tasks and the need for a process terms of agreement to accomplish tasks was all very insightful and drawn from experience. Well done!

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